Sociocultural stereotypes in different genres of American media discourse in the middle of the last century

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32589/2311-0821.24%20(1).2021.236094

Keywords:

sociocultural stereotype, media discourse, radio show, television comedy, TV commercial

Abstract

The article provides the analysis of the means that represent sociocultural stereotypes in radio and television genres of American media discourse in the middle of the 20th century. In a cognitive-linguistic perspective, the definition of a sociocultural stereotype has been specified as a verbalized mental construct of an ethnically and culturally marked, idealized image of a person, a social group or a phenomenon. The research results prove that the analyzed sociocultural stereotypes evoke feelings to a social group or an individual, reflected in verbal and nonverbal codes. Emotional and evaluative perception of sociocultural stereotypes is dependent on the historical and cultural context. Positively evaluated stereotypes embody American cultural values. Aimed at describing the linguistic means of representation of sociocultural stereotypes, the research methodology is based on a discursive analysis and involves interpretation of media texts within the thematic and historical contexts. It has been revealed that the analyzed means that represent sociocultural stereotypes in media discourse manifest in lexical units, thematic selection of syntactic constructions, rhetorical and stylistic devices. Represented by audio-visual means in media discourse, sociocultural stereotypes are considered as complex semantic units of speech, visual, behavioral, and ethical characteristics of individuals or social groups. It has been proved that behavioral characteristics of sociocultural stereotypes are based on a speech specificity of social groups, which demonstrates their origin and social status manifested in prosodic means, lexical and grammatical forms of the utterances.

References

Бартминский, Е. (2005). Языковой образ мира: очерки по этнолингвистике. Москва: Индрик.

Бартминский, Е. (2009). Базовые стереотипы и их профилирование (на материале польского языка). В Л. Л. Федорова (Ред.), Стереотипы в языке, коммуникации и культуре (сc. 11-21). Москва: Издательский центр РГГУ.

Бацевич, Ф. С. (2004). Основи комунікативної лінгвістики. Київ: Академія.

Красных, В. В. (2002). Этнопсихология и лингвокультурология : курс лекций. Москва: Гнозис.

Крысин, Л. П. (2003). Этностереотипы в современном языковом сознании: к постановке проблемы. В Н. А. Купина & М. Б. Хомяков (Отв. ред.), Философские и лингвокультурологические проблемы толерантности (сс. 458-463). Екатеринбург: Уральский университет.

Марчишина, А. А. (2018). Постмодерністська ґендерна ідентичність: поняття, стереотип, типаж. Інтернаука, 7(1), 95-97.

Потапенко, С. І. (2009). Сучасний англомовний медіа-дискурс: лінгвокогнітивний і мотиваційний аспекти. Ніжин: НДУ.

Прохоров, Ю. Е. (1999). Национальные и социокультурные стереотипы речевого общения и их роль в обучении русскому языку иностранцев. Москва: Икар.

Юдин, А. В. (2017). Бартминский. В С. Я. Левит (Ред.). Summa culturologiae (Т. 1) (сс. 152- 154). Москва, Санкт-Петербург: Центр гумманитарных инициатив.

Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (2017). Conceptual approaches to stereotypes and stereotyping. In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 1-35). New York: Psychology Press.

Bartmiński, J. (2016). What Does It Mean for Stereotypes to “Reside in Language”? In A. Dąbrowska, W. Pisarek, G. Stickel (Eds.) Stereotypes and Linguistic Prejudices in Europe (pp. 115-137). Research Institute for Linguistics Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Beukeboom, C. J., & Burgers, Ch. (2019). How Stereotypes Are Shared Through Language: A Review and Introduction of the Social Categories and Stereotypes Communication (SCSC) Framework. Review of Communication Research, 7, 1-37. Doi: 10.12840/issn.2255–4165.017

Blanchard, M. A. (2013). History of the Mass Media in the United States. Routledge.

Bodenhausen, G. V., & Macrae, C. N. (1998). Stereotype activation and inhibition. In R. S. Wyer, Jr. (Ed.), Stereotype activation and inhibition (pp. 1–52). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Brylla C. (2018). A Social Cognition Approach to Stereotyping in Documentary Practice. In C. Brylla & M. Kramer (Eds.), Cognitive Theory and Documentary Film. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90332-3_15

Chafel, J. A. (1997). Societal images of poverty: Child and adult beliefs. Youth Society, 28(4), 432-463. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X97028004003

Croom, A. M. (2014). Spanish slurs and stereotypes for Mexican-Americans in the USA: A contextsensitive account of derogation and appropriation. Sociocultural Pragmatics, 2(2), 145-179.

Dijk, van T. A. (1996). Discourse, Racism and Ideology. La Laguna: RCEI.

Fiske, S. T. (2017). Prejudices in Cultural Contexts: Shared Stereotypes (Gender, Age) versus Variable Stereotypes (Race, Ethnicity, Religion). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(5), 791-799.

Lawton, L. (2016). Reconsidering the Use of Gender Stereotypes in Medieval Romance: Figures of Vulnerability and of Power. Miranda, 12. UniversitéToulouse Jean–Jaurès. https://doi.org/10.4000/miranda.8646.

Levon, E. (2014). Categories, Stereotypes, and the Linguistic Perception of Sexuality. Language in Society, 43 (5), 539-566.

ЛЕКСИКОГРАФІЧНІ ДЖЕРЕЛА

Kipfer, B. A., & Chapman, R. L. (2007). Dictionary of American Slang. HarperCollins.

Dalzell, T. (2018). (Ed.). Dictionary of ModernAmerican Slang and Unconventional English Routledge.

Mance, A. M. (2006). Sapphire (Stereotype). In E.A. Beaulieu (Ed.), Writing African American Women: An Encyclopedia of Literature by and about Women of Color (Vol. I, pp.772-773). Greenwood.

ДЖЕРЕЛА ІЛЮСТРАТИВНОГО МАТЕРІАЛУ

Amos and Andy. (April 29, 1928). Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/amosandy1/aa290117.mp3

The Andy Griffith Show. (1960). Season 1, Episod 5 “Irresistable Andy”. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mVQoWfL7s6M

The Andy Griffith Show. (1961). Season 2, Episode 8, “The Perfect Female”. Retrieved from https://www.dailymotion.com/ video/x6uga0i

The Andy Griffith Show. (1961). Season 1, Episode 17, “Alcohol and Old Lace”. Retrieved from https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x6tn23v

The Andy Griffith Show. (1962). Season 2, Episode 25, “Andy and Barney in the Big City”. Retrieved from https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x6vicka

The Andy Griffith Show. (1963). Season 3, Episode 29, “A Wife for Andy”. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQV7EFbc2ck

The Donna Reed Show. (1958). Official Trailer. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U-uh3XbUMfY

I Love Lucy. (1953). Equal Rights. Season 3, Episode 4. Retrieved from https://www.cbs.com/shows/i_love_lucy/video/1892292621/i-love-lucy-equal-rights/

Reynolds, M. (1967). Little Boxes. Retrieved from https://genius.com/Malvina-reynolds-littleboxes-lyrics

Rogers, R. (1952). Post Grape Nut Flakes Commercial. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DFWVYohsvZ4&list=PLJEb1IVKTmCWPr6YN8uaGL-sWvD-Ln52u&index=159

Watkins, M. (1991, July 7). What Was It About 'Amos 'n' Andy'. New York Times. Retrieved from

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/07/07/books/what-was-it-about-amos-n-andy.html

Published

2021-07-06

Issue

Section

Articles