Information-structural transformations of additive adverb EVEN (a case study of the English language written records and corpora of the XII-XVII с.)
Keywords:focusing adverb, additive scalar adverb, text corpora, given/new information, sentence Focus/Topic
The paper presents the study of the adverb even in Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse and Early English Books Online, which texts and digital solutions help investigate the impact of sentence information structure on adverbial development. Corpus and semantic analysis of the XII-XVII c. written records have been the basis for singling out even as a focusing adverb outlining its distinctive features as an additive. The author proposes a new methodology to annotate information structure of the sentences with the adverb retrieved from the corpora taking into account the word-order change over the span of the 1150s-1690s of the English language development and introduces its corpus annotation. There has also been tested the elaborated scheme of tagging given / new information in multi-layer corpora based on Discourse Representation Theory (1st layer) as well as sentence Topic / Focus (2nd layer). It has been assumed that as a result of changes of the underlying word order in Middle English, the language requires the emergence of such new sentence information structure markers as a ‘therapy’, viz. additive even. It has been discovered that it functions as the degree and manner adverb in Old English, while in Middle English it operates as a restrictive (either exclusive or particularizer) or scalar additive adverb. The study specifies that when carrying out the latter function, it marks the sentence component which exemplifies mirative Focus emphasizing the surprising information in the discourse; this triggers the inverted word order in the clause with X-element left dislocation. Corpus data analysis in the English language through the 2nd half of the XV–XVII c. shows that due to the fixed SVO order in this period there is a considerable increase in the frequency of using even as a focusing adverb that mostly highlights mirative Focus.
Андрушенко, О. Ю. (2020). Становлення фокусуючого адверба only в англійських писемних пам’ятках XII-XVII ст. Мова і культура, 22, V (200), 212-219.
Корольова, А.В. (2017). Принципи розробки бази даних “Лінгвоантропогенез”: концепція, структура і зміст. Науковий часопис НПУ імені М.П. Драгоманова. Серія 9. Сучасні тенденції розвитку мов, 15, 119-125.
Andorno, C. (2000). Focalizzatori fra connessione e messa a fuoco. Il punto di vista delle varietà di apprendimento. Milano: Franco Angeli.
Andrushenko, O. (2017). Information-structural impact on adverbial only evolution in the Middle English language. Science and education, a new dimension. Philology, 5 (29), 116, 10-15.
Andrushenko, O. (2021a). Corpus based studies of Middle English adverb largely: syntax and information-structure. X-Linguae. European Scientific Language Journal, 14 (2), 60-75. DOI: 10.18355/XL.2021.14.02.05.
Andrushenko O. (2021b). On marking NPs by exclusive only in EEBO Corpus: syntactic and information structural considerations. In N. Sharonova, V. Lytvyn, O. Cherednichenko et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Systems (COLINS 2021). Volume I: Main Conference, Lviv, Ukraine, April 22-23, 2021 (pp. 459-474). Available online: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-2870/paper34.pdf
Baker, P. (2010). Corpus methods in linguistics. In L. Litosseliti (Ed.), Research methods in linguistics (pp. 93-113). London, New York: Continuum.
Bayer, J. (1996). Directionality and logical form: on the scope of focussing particles and wh-in-situ. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Bech, K. (2001). Word order patterns in Old and Middle English: A syntactic and pragmatic study (PhD dissertation, University of Bergen). Available from https://bora.uib.no/bora-xmlui/handle/1956/3850.
Bennett, P., Durrell, M., Scheible, S., Whitt, R. (2013). New methods in historical corpora. Tübingen: Narr.
Biber, D., Finegan, E. & Atkinson, D. (1993). ARCHER and its challenges: Compiling and exploring a representative corpus of historical English registers. In J. Aarts, P. de Haan & N. Oosdijk (Eds.), English language corpora. Design, analysis and exploitation (pp. 1-130). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Brinton, L. (2017). The evolution of pragmatic markers in English. Journal of Linguistics, 55 (2), 449-453.
Brunetti, L. (2004). A unification of focus. Padua: Unipress.
Cinque, G. (2006). Restructuring and functional heads. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Crawford, W. J., & Csomay, E. (2016). Doing corpus linguistics. New York, London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Davies, M. (2012). Expanding horizons in historical linguistics with the 400-million-word Corpus of Historical American English. Corpora, 7, 121-157.
De Cesare, A.-M. (2017). On ‘additivity’ as a multidisciplinary research field. In A.-M. De Cesare & C. Andorno (Eds.), Focus on additivity: adverbial modifiers in Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages (pp. 1-22). Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publ.
Fălăuş, A. (2020). Negation and alternatives: Interaction with focus constituents. In V. Depres & M. T. Espinal (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of negation (pp. 333-348). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Forker, D. (2016). Toward a typology for additive markers. Lingua, 180, 69-100.
Frascarelli, M., & Hinterhölzl, R. (2007). Types of topics in German and Italian. In K. Schwabe & S. Winkler (Eds.), On information structure, meaning and form: Generalizations across languages (pp. 87-116). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publ.
Gast, V., & van der Auwera, J. (2011). Scalar additive operators in the languages of Europe. Language, 87 (1), 2-54.
Gelderen, E. van. (2018). Analyzing syntax through texts: Old, Middle, and Early Modern English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Limited.
Geurts, B., Beaver, D. I., Maier, E. (2020). Discourse Representation Theory. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, metaphysics research lab, Stanford University spring 2020 edn, 2020. Available online: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/discourse- epresentationtheory/.
Geyken, A. & Gloning, T. (2015). A living text archive of 15th-19th-century German: Corpus
strategies, technology, organization. In J. Gippert & R. Gehrke (Eds.), Historical corpora. Challenges and perspectives (pp. 165-179). Tübingen: Narr.
Giannakidou, A. (2007). The landscape of EVEN. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 25, 39- 81.
Haug, D.T.T., Eckhoff, H.M., Majer, M. & Welo, E. (2009). Breaking down and putting back together: Analysis and synthesis of New Testament Greek. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 9 (1), 56-92.
Johansson, S. (2009). Some aspects of the development of corpus linguistics in the 1970s and 1980s. In Anke Lüdeling & Merja Kytö (Eds), Corpus linguistics: An international handbook (pp. 33-53). Berlin: De Gruyter.
Kemenade, A. van. (2009). Discourse relations and word order change. In R. Hinterhölzl & S. Petrova (Eds.), Information structure and language change: New approaches to word order variation in Germanic, (pp. 91-118). Berlin, New-York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kirfka, M., Musan, R. (2012). The expression of information structure. Berlin, New-York: Mouton de Gruyter.
König, E. (1991). The meaning of focus particles: a comparative perspective. London: Routledge.
König, E. (2017). Syntax and semantics of additive focus markers from a cross-linguistic perspective: A tentative assessment of the state of the art. In A.-M. De Cesare & C. Andorno (Eds.), Focus on additivity: Adverbial modifiers in Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages (pp. 23-43). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publ.
König, E. & Gast, V. (2006). Focused assertion of identity: A typology of intensifiers. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Krifka, M. (2007). Basic notions of information structure. Interdisciplinary studies on information structure, 6, 13-55.
Kroch, A. & Taylor, A. (2000). The Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English (PPCME2). Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. CD-ROM, second edition, release 4 (http://www.ling.upenn.edu/ppche/ppche-release-2016/PPCME2-RELEASE-4).
Lavidas, N. & Haugh, D.T.T. (2020). Postclassical Greek and treebanks for a diachronic analysis. In D. Rafiyenko & I. Seržant (Eds.), Postclassical Greek: contemporary approaches to philology and linguistics (pp. 163–202). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Leroux, A. (2012). Even et quelques traductions en français: la référence à l’inattendu. LINX, 66-67, 35–50.
López-Couso, M. J., Méndez-Naya, A., Núñez-Pertejo, B. P., & Palacios-Martínez, I.M. (2016). Corpus linguistics on the move. Exploring and understanding English through corpora. Leiden, Boston: Brill Rodopi.
Los, B. (2015). A historical syntax of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Los, B., & Kemenade, A. van. (2012). Information structure and syntax in the history of English. In A. Bergs & L. Brinton (Eds.), English historical linguistics: An international handbook (pp. 1475-1489). Berlin; New-York: Mouton de Gruyter.
McEnery, T. & Hardie, A. (2012). Corpus linguistics. Cambridge: CUP.
Middle English Dictionary (2021). Available online: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/middle-englishdictionary/dictionary.
Nevalainen, T. (1991). BUT, ONLY, JUST: Focusing adverbial change in Modern English 1500-1900. Helsinki: Societe Neophilologique.
Nevalainen, T. (1994). Aspects of adverbial change in Early Modern English. In D. Kastovsky (Ed.), Studies in Early Modern English (pp. 243-260). Berlin & New-York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Nevalainen, T. (2006). An introduction to Early Modern English. Oxford: OUP.
Petrova, S. (2009). Information structure and word order variation in the Old High German Tatian. In Hinterhö lzl R., Petrova S. (Eds.), Information structure and language change (pp. 251-279). Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter.
Pintzuk, S. (2015). Phrase structures in competition: Variation and change in Old English word order. New York: Routledge.
Rissanen, M. (2009). Corpus linguistics and historical linguistics. In A. Lüdeling & M. Kytö (Eds.), Corpus linguistics: An international handbook (pp. 53-68). Berlin: De Gruyter.
Rissanen, M. (1985). Expression of exclusiveness in Old English and the development of the adverb only. In R. Eaton et al. (Eds.), Papers from the 4th international conference on English historical linguistics (pp. 253-267). Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publ.
Rooth, M. (1985). Association with focus. (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts). Available from https://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations/AAI8509599/.
Schwabe, K. & Winkler, S. (2007). On information structure, meaning and form: Generalizations across languages. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publ.
Speyer, A. (2010). Topicalization and stress clash avoidance in the history of English. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Sudhoff, S. (2010). Focus particles in German. Syntax, prosody, and information structure. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publ.
Traugott, E. (2004). From subjectification to intersubjectification. In R. Hickey (Ed.), Motives for language change, (pp. 124–139), Cambridge: CUP.
Whitt, R. (2018). Using diachronic corpora to understand the connection between genre and language change. In R. Whitt (Ed.), Diachronic corpora, genre, and language change, (pp. 1-18), Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publ.
Wilkinson, K. (1996). The scope of even. Natural language semantics, 4, 193-215.
ДЖЕРЕЛА ІЛЮСТРАТИВНОГО МАТЕРІАЛУ
Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse (ME Corpus) (2019). Available online: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/cme/.
Dictionary of Old English Corpus (2009). Available online: https://tapor.library.utoronto.ca/ doecorpus/.
Early English books online (EEBO) (2021). Available online: https://www.englishcorpora.org/eebo/.
Oxford English Dictionary (OED) (2021). Available online: https://www.oed.com.
License1. Authors take full responsibility for the content of the articles as well as the fact of their publication.
2. All the authors must follow the current requirements for publication of manuscripts. Plagiarism itself and its representation as the original work as well as submission to the editorial office previously published articles are unacceptable. In case of plagiarism discovery the authors of the submitted materials take all the responsibility.
3. Authors shall inform the editor of any possible conflict of interests which could be influenced by the publication of the manuscript results.
4. The editorial board has the right to refuse publication of an article in case of non-compliance with these requirements.